|Red Hat Linux 7.1: The Official Red Hat Linux Customization Guide|
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As a convenience to our customers, we provide the FIPS utility. This is a freely available program that can resize FAT (File Allocation Table) partitions. It's included on the Red Hat Linux CD-ROM in the dosutils directory.
Many people have successfully used FIPS to repartition their hard drives. However, because of the nature of the operations carried out by FIPS, and the wide variety of hardware and software configurations under which it must run, Red Hat cannot guarantee that FIPS will work properly on your system. Therefore, no installation support whatsoever is available for FIPS; use it at your own risk.
That said, if you decide to repartition your hard drive with FIPS, it is vital that you do two things:
Perform a Backup — Make two copies of all the important data on your computer. These copies should be to removable media (such as tape or diskettes), and you should make sure they are readable before proceeding.
Read the Documentation — Completely read the FIPS documentation, located in the FIPS directory on the Red Hat Linux CD-ROM.
Should you decide to use FIPS, be aware that after FIPS runs you will be left with two partitions: the one you resized, and the one FIPS created out of the newly freed space. If your goal is to use that space to install Red Hat Linux, you should delete the newly created partition, either by using fdisk under your current operating system, or while setting up partitions during a custom-class installation.
The following instructions are a simplified version of the FIPS documentation file, fips.doc, located in the FIPS directory (/dosutils/fips20/*). These instructions should apply in most instances. If you encounter any problems, see the documentation file.
Do a full backup.
Run scandisk to verify that the hard drive contains no bad clusters.
Decide how to distribute the available space on the hard drive between the operating systems. Use Windows Explorer to see the free space on the drive. Make a note of the space (in megabytes) that each operating system will have.
If you don't have one, create a DOS boot disk.
To create a DOS boot disk, first boot your machine to DOS.
Next, insert a blank, formatted diskette into the floppy drive.
Type the following at the command prompt and press
FORMAT A: /S
If you're using Windows 95, first insert a blank formatted diskette into the floppy drive. Next, go to Start/Run, and type:
FORMAT A: /S
The diskette will be formatted, and COMMAND.COM, along with the associated hidden files (IO.SYS, MSDOS.SYS, and BDLSAPCE.BIN), will be copied to the diskette.
Copy the following files on the Red Hat Linux CD-ROM to the DOS boot disk.
Defragment the hard drive.
Insert the DOS boot disk into the floppy drive and reboot the system.
Start FIPS (type fips at the prompt).
When FIPS begins, you'll find a welcome screen similar to the following:
FIPS version 2.0, Copyright (C) 1993/4 Arno Schaefer FAT32 Support, Copyright (C) 1997 Gordon Chaffee DO NOT use FIPS in a multitasking environment like Windows, OS/2, Desqview, Novell Task manager or the Linux DOS emulator; boot from a DOS boot disk first. If you use OS/2 or a disk compressor, read the relevant sections in FIPS.DOC. FIPS comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY, see file COPYING for details. This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions; again, see file COPYING for details. Press any key.
Figure 1-1. FIPS Welcome Screen
When you press a key, a root partition screen similar to the following appears. (Note that, if the computer has more than one hard drive, you'll be asked to select which one you want to partition.)
Partition table: | | Start | | End | Start |Number of| Part.|bootable|Head Cyl. Sector|System|Head Cyl. Sector| Sector |Sectors | MB -----+--------+----------------+------+----------------+--------+---------+---- 1 | yes | 0 148 1| 83h| 15 295 63| 149184| 149184| 72 2 | no | 1 0 1| 06h| 15 139 63| 63| 141057| 68 3 | no | 0 140 1| 06h| 15 147 63| 141120| 8064| 3 4 | no | 0 0 0| 00h| 0 0 0| 0| 0| 0 Checking root sector ... OK Press any key.
Figure 1-2. FIPS Root Partition Screen
When you press a key, details about the hard drive, such as the following, will appear.
Boot sector: Bytes per sector: 512 Sectors per cluster: 8 Reserved sectors: 1 Number of FATs: 2 Number of rootdirectory entries: 512 Number of sectors (short): 0 Media descriptor byte: f8h Sectors per FAT: 145 Sectors per track: 63 Drive heads: 16 Hidden sectors: 63 Number of sectors (long): 141057 Physical drive number: 80h Signature: 29h Checking boot sector ... OK Checking FAT ... OK Searching for free space ... OK Do you want to make a backup copy of your root and boot sector before proceeding? (y/n)
Figure 1-3. FIPS Boot Sector Screen
You should select y, for yes, to make a backup copy of your root and boot sector before proceeding with FIPS.
Next, you'll be presented with the following message:
Do you have a bootable floppy disk in drive A: as described in the documentation? (y/n)
Verify that a DOS boot disk is in the floppy drive, and type y, for yes. A screen similar to the following will appear, allowing you to resize the partition.
Writing file a:\rootboot:000 Enter start cylinder for new partition (33-526) Use the cursor keys to choose the cylinder, <enter> to continue Old partition Cylinder New partition 258.9 MB 33 3835.8 MB
Figure 1-4. Partition Resizing Screen
The initial values allocate all free space on
the disk to the new partition. This is not what you want, because
this setting would leave no free space on your Windows
partition. Press the
First Cluster: 17442 Last Cluster: 65511 Testing if empty ... OK New partition table: | | Start | | End | Start |Number of| Part.|bootable|Head Cyl. Sector|System|Head Cyl. Sector| Sector |Sectors | MB -----+--------+----------------+------+----------------+--------+---------+---- 1 | yes | 0 148 1| 83h| 15 295 63| 149184| 149184| 1090 2 | no | 0 139 1| 06h| 254 521 63| 2233035| 6152995| 3084 3 | no | 0 140 1| 06h| 15 147 63| 141120| 8064| 3 4 | no | 0 0 0| 00h| 0 0 0| 0| 0| 0 Checking root sector ... OK Do you want to continue or reedit the partition table (c/r)?
Figure 1-5. FIPS Verification Screen
New boot sector: Boot sector: Bytes per sector: 512 Sectors per cluster: 8 Reserved sectors: 1 Number of FATs: 2 Number of rootdirectory entries: 512 Number of sectors (short): 0 Media descriptor byte: f8h Sectors per FAT: 145 Sectors per track: 63 Drive heads: 16 Hidden sectors: 63 Number of sectors (long): 141057 Physical drive number: 80h Signature: 29h Checking boot sector ... OK Ready to write new partition scheme to disk Do you want to proceed (y/n)?
Figure 1-6. FIPS Confirmation Screen
Answering y completes the resizing operation. A harmless error message may occur, stating in effect that FIPS cannot reboot the system.
After a successful operation, the disk will have two partitions. The first partition (hda1 or sda1) will be used by Windows. We recommend that you start Windows (remember to remove the boot disk from drive A:) and run scandisk on drive C:.
If you encounter any problems, (for example, Windows will not boot), you can reverse the FIPS resizing operation with the restorrb.exe command, which you copied to your DOS boot disk. In case of any errors, read the FIPS documentation files (fips.doc and fips.faq), which describe a number of factors that could cause the resizing operation to fail. If all else fails, you can restore Windows with the backup you made.
The second partition (hda2 or sda2) contains the space that the Red Hat Linux installation program will use. When the Disk Druid screen appears during installation, delete this partition (the installation manual explains how), then proceed with Linux partitioning.